How much of a problem is congestion?
Congestion increases travel time and vehicle operating costs, with run-on effects that impact on the entire economy. Congestion costs in Melbourne were estimated to be $4.6 billion in 2015 and this is projected to rise to $9-10 billion by 2030.*
* Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, Information Sheet 74 – Traffic and congestion cost trends for Australian capital cities (2015) and Infrastructure Australia, Australian Infrastructure Audit Our Infrastructure Challenges Report – Volume 1 (April 2015).